A case brought under the Federal False Claims Act can be filed in any state.
Qui tam lawsuits can also be filed by whistleblowers under state-specific false claims laws if the fraud involves Medicaid funds or money from state and local agencies. In order for whistleblowers to receive a reward for their contributions to the recovery of state funds, most states that have whistleblower laws require the whistleblower to bring a qui tam lawsuit against the company or individual cheating the state.
In at least two states, Arkansas and Missouri, a whistleblower may receive a reward for providing information that leads to a recovery even though these states do not allow whistleblowers to file qui tam lawsuits.
Some state-specific False Claims Acts apply only to fraud involving Medicaid or other state healthcare funds. These states include: Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington.
In other states, the False Claims Act applies to a broader range of state, and sometimes local, government programs including Medicaid. These states include: California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland (until 6/1/2015), Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia.
In addition, a handful of cities and municipalities have created their own versions of the False Claims Act with qui tam provisions. Places with “local” False Claims Acts include: Bay Harbor Islands, FL; Broward County, FL; Miami-Dade County, FL; Hallandale Beach, FL; Chicago, IL; New York, NY; Allegheny County, PA; and Philadelphia, PA. However, these local laws are generally less comprehensive and effective as their federal and state counterparts.
There are also two state laws – the California Insurance Claims Fraud Prevention Act and the Illinois Insurance Claims Fraud Prevention Act – that permit whistleblowers to potentially receive a reward for reporting fraud against private insurers in those states.